Tuesday, July 1, 2008

German Shepherd Dog

The German Shepherd Dog (GSD), is a breed of dog originally bred for herding sheep. There are various other names for this dog such as Alsatian (which originated out of Anti-German sentiment during WWI) and simply German Shepherd. Today, based on 2006 Kennel Club figures, German Shepherd Dogs are one of the most popular breeds in the UK, with 12,857 registrations[1] and also one of the most popular breeds in the United States with 43,575 registrations.[2] They can be found working as guide dogs for the blind or disabled, police work, guarding, search and rescue, therapy and in the military. Despite their suitability for such work, German Shepherds can also make loyal and loving pets inside the home. They enjoy being around people and other animals, although socialization is critical for young puppies in order to prevent aggressive and dangerous behavior as an adult. German Shepherds are well-suited to obedience, with advanced and prestigious titles available to test both the handler and dog in various Schutzhund trials.
1 Characteristics
1.1 Appearance
1.1.1 Controversy over the modern appearance
1.1.2 Appearance in working versus show lines
1.1.3 Appearance in national breed lines
1.1.4 Variant sizes and coats Long-coated German Shepherds White coat
1.2 Temperament
2 Health
3 Name
4 History
5 Titling and competitions
6 Scent-work
7 Appearances in films and on television
8 See also
9 References
10 External links
10.1 Australia
10.2 Canada
10.3 Denmark
10.4 France
10.5 Germany
10.6 Ireland, Republic of
10.7 Italy
10.8 Poland
10.9 United Kingdom
10.10 United States



Buck - A fine example of a German Shepherd. Descended from strong, pedigree blood lines where his grandfather, Bashir, was both a German and European champion.
Exact standards for the breed vary by country and organization, but the following criteria are generally part of the definition.
The German Shepherd Dog is a large and strong dog, typically between 65 and 95 lbs, but have been known to reach 110+lbs. The height for males is typically 24 - 26in (60 - 65cm); for females it is 22 - 24in (55 - 60cm). The fur is a double-coat (under coat and outer coat). While some organizations accept long-haired German Shepherds, short-haired dogs are typically, and historically, preferred.
German Shepherds are easily identifiable by their large head, ears which stand straight up, wedge-shaped muzzle and compact legs. They also have a distinctive gait, as well as other breed-specific features.
Their jaw strength ranges from 250-1200 pounds.
Disqualifications for conformation-line dogs include white nails, a nose which isn't all-black, a muzzle which isn't predominantly black, non-erect ears, and very light-toned eyes.

Controversy over the modern appearance
German Shepherds are sparingly bred, by the efforts of a great few, for work function (working line) as was originally intended by the breed inventor Max von Stephanitz. Most often they are bred to conform to breed appearance standards (conformation line), although Max von Stephanitz distinctly stated, "Our shepherd dog is a service dog, and he must only be bred as a service dog. He must only be judged as a service dog. With service dogs, suitability ranks higher than beauty."

Appearance in working versus show lines

The German Shepherd dog was advanced in the United States by the renowned dog breeder and judge, Geraldine R. Dodge, who invited Rin Tin Tin to her prestigious Morris and Essex Dog Show in 1929 and wrote a book about the breed
In Germany, Conformation line dogs are bred to not only proper physical appearance, but must also have working instincts (herding, prey drive) They are bred to conform to the published breed standards for appearance, health and workability, hence the strict rules of the German SV Schaeferhunde Verein[3] for dogs in their Pink Paper breeding program to be titled and Küred (critiqued by a Judge). However, because they are bred for conformation to the breed standard of appearance, these dogs are most often found as quality pets, in breeder environments, and in sport (Schutzhund, IPO, AKC agility) and as volunteer Search and Rescue dogs.
Working line German Shepherds are typically excluded from the show ring, as most don't conform to the current interpretation of the breed standard for physical appearance. These dogs are bred to have an enduring work drive, and unwavering obedience. Of critical importance is the dog's ability to distinguish what constitutes a threat and what does not constitute a threat. Dogs that cannot make that distinction are eliminated from police and military programs. Extremely well-suited for police and military work, these dogs are less suitable as pets for home environments, unless the owners are familiar with their dog's abilities and needs. Working line dogs are now employed in many police departments and government organizations across the globe such as the UK Police Service and the Metropolitan Counter Terrorism Command in the United Kingdom, and the ATF, the U.S. Marshals, and Customs in the USA. Working line dogs are frequently found in sport and as volunteer search and rescue dogs.

Appearance in national breed lines

A German Shepherd puppy. The ears do not stand erect until several weeks or months of age, and go through phases of both-ears-down, one-ear-up, etc., until then.
There are typically four recognized breed lines.
The West German Lines contain conformation lines and are the best known of the various lines. The split between the working line and conformation line bred dogs has affected this line also, with the confirmation line specializing in beauty while the working line dogs are targeted towards performance and working related activities.
The DDR lines. In the former East Germany, German Shepherds adhered more closely to the old pre-war standard, marked by a straighter back, a longer and denser coat, and a darker color. The government sponsored breeding program fell when the wall fell; thus there are no longer any true DDR dogs being bred, although there are current attempts to preserve this distinct line amongst certain breeders.
Most Czech dogs had their origins in the government kennels of Z Pohranicni straze (z PS), Z Jirkova dvora CS and Z Blatenskeho zamku. One of the most prolific kennels, Z Pohranicni straze (Z PS), was founded in the year 1955 for the strict purpose of production and training of the dogs that would be solely used for the protection of Czechoslovakia's borders. The majority of these dogs were acquired from former East Germany.
The American lines are recognized by the AKC and the UKC; their appearance is different from the international conformation line (German line) German Shepherds, most obviously with sloping backs and "collapsed" hips, a disqualification for dogs in international competitions. This has led to the creation of the Shiloh Shepherd in the United States, which was originally a line of German shepherd whose breeder did not favor that feature in the American lines and wanted to preserve the way the breed originally looked.
German Shepherd Breed Types with photos

Variant sizes and coats
German Shepherds are a range of colors; conformation-line dogs are most often black-and-tan or black-and-red. Combinations containing very light hues such as cream are typically considered faulty. All-black is usually, but not always, accepted. A white German Shepherd is automatically disqualified from the AKC, but is fully recognized as a pure-bred dog by the UKC. Working-line dogs are typically sable, solid black, bi-color, or black-and-red.

A solid black German Shepherd
There are several different color-marking patterns. For conformation-line dogs, the "saddle" marking is probably the most well-known. This consists of a large black patch on the upper and mid back, extending partway down the dog's sides. The "sable" marking, which consists of one color with randomly-sized and -shaped patches or swaths of different-colored hair mixed in, is typical for working-line dogs. Some sable-pattern dogs have three colors in their coat; this is called agouti. The other popular marking is called "bi-color", and consists of a dog that is all one color (typically black) save for differently-colored paws and lower legs, and sometimes a swath on the belly.
Some groups or breeders have focused on variants of the breed that are not recognized by most kennel clubs as standard conformation German Shepherds. White Shepherds or Berger Blanc Suisse are recognized as a separate breed.
German Shepherds have a double coat which sheds year round, with particularly heavy shedding in the Spring and Fall.

Long-coated German Shepherds
Dogs with the long haired coat variation look somewhat like the Tervuren type of Belgian Shepherd Dog. The long hair gene is recessive. Popular myth holds that long-haired GSDs (sometimes called "fuzzies") are more affectionate, but there is little evidence for this beyond owner impressions. Long coats can come in two variations, both with an undercoat and without. Without the undercoat they have very little weather protection, but those longhairs with it fair as well as their short-haired companions, just with longer hair on the outside.
Kennel club treatment of long-haired German Shepherds varies. It is considered a fault under American Kennel Club and FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale, i.e. International Canine Federation) standards. Under other standards, such as Germany[4] and the United Kingdom,[5] long-haired German Shepherds are actively bred, registered, and shown, and specialized long-haired breeders exist. There is also a variation known as 'long, stock-haired German Shephard'; stock hair isn't registered directly as a fault and such dogs are able to participate, and are also known as plush coats.

White coat

A White Swiss Shepherd, a descendant of the white German Shepherd.
Main article: Berger Blanc Suisse
The recessive gene for white coat hair was fixed in the German Shepherd Dog breed DNA by the late nineteenth and early twentieth century German breeding program that extensively used "color coated" dogs who carried a recessive gene for "white coats." The maternal grandfather of Horand von Grafrath, the first entry "SZ 1" in the SV Stud Book, was a white-coat German shepherding dog named Greif von Sparwasser. Whites can come in anything from pure white to a blondish golden colour. Normal pigment was expected to be present in the nose, pads, and eyes. White was designated a disqualifying conformation fault by the SV (German Shepherd Club of Germany) in 1933 and by the German Shepherd Dog Club of America (GSDCA) and the German Shepherd Dog Club of Canada (GSDCC)in the mid-1960s. White German Shepherds were disqualified from dog shows and other organizations mainly because of their fur color. Their color was known to be noticed too easily in the dark and difficult to spot in the lighter conditions such as snow.

German Shepherds are highly intelligent and agile dogs, with a strong work drive. They are often deployed in various roles such as police, guarding, search and rescue, therapy, service-dog, and in the military applications.
The breed has a personality marked by direct, fearless willingness to protect what it considers its "den" (i.e. house, car, and property in a home situation) and "pack" (i.e. human family in a home situation). It is poised, but when the occasion demands, eager and alert; both fit and willing to serve in its capacity as a companion, watchdog, guide dog for people who are blind, herding dog, or guardian, whichever the circumstances may demand.[6]
Proper socialization as a puppy is one of the two key factors which determines what a dog's temperament will be as an adult.[7] Genetics is the other.[8] They go hand-in-hand; a dog with certain genetics cannot be trained to be stable and friendly, and by the same token the genetics most fit for training are meaningless if the dog is not well-socialized as a puppy. [9] The "ideal" German Shepherd should be alert and fearless in defense of its den and pack, but loving and non-aggressive within the home environment.[10]

As is common of many large breeds, German Shepherds are susceptible to elbow and hip dysplasia. Proper breeding is needed to breed these traits out of their dogs, so that the dog may enjoy a pain-free life and stay suited for work situations. These breeders typically require that their puppies' hips and elbows be x-rayed, and the x-rays approved and certified by the OFA when the puppy is fully-grown (age two), in order for the puppy to be allowed to be bred. Recent American breeders have failed to maintain the same standard regarding the hind quarters of the breed as in other countries and dogs presenting the weaker hind quarters are disqualified in international shows.
Other health problems sometimes occurring in the breed are von Willebrand's disease, skin allergies and canine degenerative myelopathy. German Shepherds, like all large bodied dogs, are also prone to bloat. They have an average lifespan of 10-12 years.
German Shepherds also are prone to pancreas deficiency, which is where the pancreas stops creating enzymes and the animal is unable to pass any faeces. There is medication available, but it is not 100% effective. Unfortunately, it does not cure the problem, and the treatment is fairly expensive.
Other illness that may occur are:Panosteitis-(definition from AKC encyclopedia) Excessive formation of bone growth or different maturity around some joints on young dogs resulting in intermittent lamenessCauda equina syndrome-Group of neurological signs resulting from compression of the spinal nerves of the lumbosacral region.Pyotraumatic dermatitis-(no definition)Malignant neoplasms-(no definition)Pannus(chronic superficial keratitis)- Potentially blinding inflammation of the cornea,including abnormal growth of vascularized pigment over cornea.

The proper English name for the breed is German Shepherd Dog (a literal translation from the German Deutscher Schäferhund) but they are usually informally referred to as GSDs or as "German Shepherds". In addition, the sobriquet police dog is used in many countries where the GSD is the predominant or exclusive breed used by the police force. In Germany the dog is referred to as just Schäferhund (shepherd dog) and often held as an ordinary companion dog.
Anti-German sentiment was still high in the wake of World War I (1914 - 1918), and change of German-oriented names in the UK - including that of the Royal Family - were common at the time when a few dogs were taken to Britain and the United States. In 1919, the English Kennel Club gave the breed a separate register. Since it was feared that the name German Shepherd Dog could be an impediment, the name Alsatian wolf dog was introduced, from Alsace, a traditionally German-speaking French area on the west bank of the Rhine which had been annexed by the German Empire in 1870 but restored to France in 1918. The 'wolf dog' part was dropped shortly thereafter for fear of causing undue criticism of the breed. This name is still occasionally used in the United Kingdom, Italy and the Republic of Ireland.

The German Shepherd breed was invented by "Captain Max" von Stephanitz in 1899. His first German Shepherd, named Horand von Grafrath, is the genetic basis for the German Shepherd as we know it today.
The German Shepherd was originally conceived as a sheep-herding dog, hence its name. Throughout the years, the specific working drives of tracking, obedience, and protection have been intentionally highlighted in the breed by selective breeding, making German Shepherds very well-suited for active working environments. German Shepherds first came to the attention of the British authorities at the beginning of the twentieth century where they were already being used extensively by German forces on the Western front during the first world war. German Shepherds were used commonly by the Germans during the time of World War I.

Titling and competitions
There are many prestigious titles available for German Shepherds, covering everything from conformation to herding abilities. Schutzhund trials were invented for evaluation German Shepherds, and measure the dogs' abilities in the areas of protection, tracking, and obedience. Most world-class conformation dogs are titled to the second or third (which is the highest) level of Schutzhund before they're bred.

The German Shepherd dog is one of the most widely-used breeds in a wide variety of scent-work roles. These include search and rescue, cadaver searching, narcotics detection, explosives detection, accelerant detection, and mine detection dog, amongst others.

Appearances in films and on television
K-9 (film), a 1989 Universal City Studios comedy starring James Belushi. It has two sequels, K-911 and K-9 P. I.
Rin Tin Tin, a German Shepherd dog, was considered to be one of Hollywood's top stars during the 1920s and 30s. At the peak of his career, Rin-Tin-Tin received as many as 10,000 fan letters a week.[11] Several dogs played the role.
Strongheart, also known as Etzel von Oeringen, was the first German Shepherd with name-above-the-title billing in a film. He starred in an adaptation of White Fang, released in 1925, and The Return of Boston Blackie, released in 1927.
In the 1966-1970 Polish World War II mini series Czterej pancerni i pies a German Shepherd Dog named 'Szarik' is part of a Polish tank crew fighting back the German army.
In a 1972 film version of Jack London's book, The Call of the Wild, which starred Charlton Heston.
The Littlest Hobo was a live-action popular television series in the 1980s airing on CTV in Canada. It featured a German Shepherd that travelled from place to place, performing some good deed, and then moving on.
Koton, a German Shepherd and a real life police dog, starred as Jerry Lee, a police dog, in the 1989 movie K-9.
From 1994 to 2005, the Austrian television show Kommissar Rex, (English Inspector Rex) featured a resourceful German Shepherd police dog.
The manga Ginga Nagareboshi Gin and its sequel, Ginga Densetsu Weed have many German Shepherd characters, including the very popular black-and-white Shepherd, Jerome, and Gin's right-hand dog, John.
In the 2000 film The Cell, the antagonist of the film, a serial killer, owns an unusual, albino colored German Shepherd named Valentine, played by a dog named Tim.
In the 2007 film I Am Legend, a female German Shepherd named Abbey plays Sam (short for 'Samantha'), the companion of main character Robert Neville (played by Will Smith).
Charlie B. Barkin, voiced by Burt Reynolds, from the 1989 animated film All Dogs go to Heaven.
In the 2005 film Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, Jean Girard's husband is a world trainer of German Shepherds.
In the Capcom game Haunting Ground, the female protagonist teams up with a white German Shepard in an attempt to escape the castle.
In the 2008 tokusatsu series Engine Sentai Go-onger one of the Engines, Engine Gunpherd, is modelled after a German Shepherd and a gun. the german shepherd considers its family as sheep and herds you around the house, also loves to jump on you

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Deutscher Schäferhund
Wolf-dog hybrid
Tamaskan dog
Northern Inuit dog

^ 2006 Top 20 Breed Registrations - The Kennel Club
^ akc.org
^ Schaeferhunde Verein
^ Langhaar-Schaeferhunde-Verband
^ German Shepherd Dog (Alsatian) Breed Standard - The Kennel Club
^ reference needed
^ reference needed
^ reference needed
^ reference needed
^ reference needed
^ The True Story of Rin Tin Tin

External links

The German Shepherd Dog Council of Australia Inc (GSDCA)

Nova Scotia German Shepherd Dog Club
German Shepherd Dog Club of Canada
German Shepherd Schutzhund Club of Canada

German Shepherd Dog Club of Denmark

Société du Chien de Berger Allemand

Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde(SV) e.V.

Ireland, Republic of
German Shepherd Dog Authority of Ireland

Società Amatori Schäferhunde

Polish site of German Shepherds

United Kingdom
The German Shepherd Dog League of Great Britain
The British Association for German Shepherd Dogs
German Shepherd Dog Rescue
German Shepherd Dog Forum for help and advice

United States
German Shepherd Dog Club of America
United Schutzhund Clubs of America
German Shepherd Dog and Puppy Information
German Shepherd Dogs and Puppies
German Shepherd Dogs News and Information

Monday, June 30, 2008

Pit-bull is the number one breed of dog named in fatal human attacks

This article is about the group of breeds commonly called "Pit Bulls." For the specific breed from which the term is derived, see American Pit Bull Terrier or American Staffordshire Terrier

An American Pit Bull Terrier,one of several breeds often categorized as a Pit Bull

A Staffordshire Bull Terrier, another breed often included in the Pit Bull Category
Pit Bull is a term commonly used to describe several breeds of dog in the Molosser family that were historically used for dog fighting. The breeds most often placed in this category are the American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier and Staffordshire Bull Terrier
In the media the term is vague and may include other breeds with similar physical characteristics, such as the Perro de Presa Canario, Cane Corso, Dogo Argentino, Alano Espanol, Japanese Tosa, Dogue de Bordeaux, Cordoba Fighting Dog, Bull Terrier, Antebellum Bulldog, Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog, American Bulldog, Boxer, Valley Bulldog, Olde English Bulldogge, Renascence Bulldogge, and Banter Bulldogge. These breeds are rarely listed by name in breed-specific legislation, but they are sometimes included when the term is defined broadly and based on physical appearance.[1]
1 History
2 Dog bite related human injuries
3 As pets
3.1 Bans
3.1.1 Global
3.1.2 United States
4 Legal issues in the United States
4.1 Misconceptions
4.1.1 Locking jaws
4.1.2 Inability to feel pain
4.1.3 Pepper spray or other pain when attacking
4.2 Insurance problems
4.3 Breed specific legislation (BSL)
4.3.1 Legal challenges to legislation in the United States
4.4 Debate
5 Dog fights
6 Media coverage
7 Famous owners
8 In the news
9 In the arts
10 See also
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
13.1 Government sites
13.2 Documentaries


This article needs additional citations for verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2007)
The ancestors of modern Pit Bulls come from the bulldogs and terriers of England. At one time, every county in England had its own breed of terrier. Many of these still exist; however, some have evolved into new ones. Such is the case for the English White and the Black and Tan terriers, whose descendants include the bull-and-terriers, the Fox Terrier, and the Manchester Terrier. Terriers served an important purpose in England by killing vermin that might otherwise ruin crops, damage property, or spread disease such as the Black Plague. The development of sports such as rat- or badger-baiting further added to the breeds' importance.

United States propaganda poster used during World War I depicting a Pit Bull
Mastiff type dogs also have a long history in England; they are thought to have been brought by the Celts. It is also known that the Normans introduced the Alaunt. These dogs were used in battle and for guarding, but they also served utilitarian purposes, such as farm work. Specifically, these dogs accompanied farmers into the fields to assist with bringing bulls in for breeding, castration, or slaughter. The dogs, known generally as bulldogs, protected the farmer by subduing the bull if it attempted to gore him. Typically a dog would do this by biting the bull on the nose and holding on until the violently struggling bull despite injury. These traits permitted the development and rise of the bloody sports of bull-baiting and bear-baiting. In Elizabethan England, these spectacles were popular forms of entertainment, comparable to Shakespearean plays which often took place right next to the bearbaiting pits in Southwark. However, in 1835, bull-baiting and bear-baiting were abolished by Parliament as cruel, and the custom died out over the following years.
Dog fighting, which could be carried out under clandestine measures, blossomed. Since Bulldogs proved too ponderous and uninterested in dog fighting, the Bulldogs were crossed with English White and Black and Tan Terriers. They were also bred to be intelligent and level-headed during fights and remain non-aggressive toward their handlers. Part of the standard for organized dog-fighting required that the match referee who is unacquainted with the dog be able to enter the ring, pick up a dog while it was engaged in a fight, and get the respective owner to carry it out of the ring without being bitten. Dogs that bit the referee were culled.
As a result, Victorian fighting dogs (Staffordshire Bull Terriers and, though less commonly used as fighters, English Bull Terriers) generally had stable temperaments and were commonly kept in the home by the gambling men who owned them.
During the mid-1800s, immigration to the United States from Ireland and England brought an influx of these dogs to America, mainly to Boston, where they were bred to be larger and stockier, working as farm dogs in the West as much as fighting dogs in the cities. The resulting breed, also called the American Pit Bull Terrier, became known as an "all-American" dog. Pit Bull-type dogs became popular as family pets for citizens who were not involved in dog-fighting or farming. In the early 1900s they began to appear in films, one of the more famous examples being Pete the Pup from the Our Gang shorts (later known as The Little Rascals).
During World War I the breed's widespread popularity led to its being featured on pro-American propaganda posters. (see poster, left)
The Pit Bull is the only dog to have ever appeared on the cover of Life Magazine three times. [2]

Dog bite related human injuries
Statistics about dog bites are difficult to analyze because the term "Pit Bull" may be used to refer to other breeds. The differences in appearance which separate dog breeds are often hard to determine. Generally, dogs are categorized by differences in outward physical attributes. Recently, the decoding of the canine genome has allowed scientific testing to determine dog breeds, but this method is not yet widely used.[3] Because of these uncertainties, statistics regarding dog bites are scientifically suspect. Yet another problem in gathering data is the lack of information about the total dog population. The public perception is that Pit Bulls are more likely to bite than other breeds. However, a 1999 City Journal article stated that "Pit bulls and pit-bull crosses (not always easy to distinguish) have caused more than a third of the nation's dog-bite fatalities since 1979 and a comparable proportion of serious injuries."[4]
"The problem with statistics appears to be that there is no consistency in where the figures are obtained, nor are there variables included in most studies. Some studies use AKC numbers, some use HSUS numbers and others use CDC&P numbers. Few include causes or contributing circumstances to the attacks, nor are the total numbers of dogs in a certain breed taken into consideration. There is no national recording system for non-fatal dog bites in the United States."[5]

[As pets
In shelters across the United States, Pit Bulls or dogs that appear to be Pit Bulls comprise a large portion of the shelter's population and may be destroyed due to the stigma associated with the breed (or because of overcrowding). [6]
Nevertheless, they can be kept as family pets. While friendliness and tolerance towards humans are traits of the breed [4], there are those that are dangerous toward humans, but such is the case with most dog breeds. Many attacks by other dog breeds are misclassified as "Pit Bulls" by media reports.[7]
Lack of proper socialization and strong training can result in a dog with aggressive tendencies. Under the care of an overly-permissive or uneducated owner, Pit Bulls can become very dangerous dogs. [8]

For more details on this topic, see Breed-specific legislation.
This table shows places where Pit Bulls have been banned or where bans were proposed.

Date banned
Ontario, Canada[9]
August 29, 2005
Pit Bulls are not allowed to be imported into or brought through Ontario. Severe fines are in place for bringing new Pit Bulls into Ontario. Pit Bulls owned prior to August 29, 2005 are grandfathered in. All grandfathered Pit Bulls of over 36 weeks of age are required to be sterilized immediately. Grandfathered Pit Bulls must be muzzled and leashed on a leash of less than 1.8 metres while in public. Sale of non-grandfathered Pit Bulls to residents of Ontario is illegal.
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada[10]
Pit Bulls are not allowed to be in Winnipeg by law.
March 10, 2006
Legislation and implementation dates varies across the different states, but here is the start of a list of the legislation in the various states: New South Wales[11], Victoria[12], Western Australia[13], Queensland[14], Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory, South Australia, Tasmania.
April 30, 1999
Ownership restricted; non-pure-breed animals resembling pit-bulls are to be surgically neutered
United Kingdom[16]
August 12, 1991
Specific breeds and similar cross-breeds banned under the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991
Banned alongside the Tosa in 1991 along with any non-pure-bred dog where either of the races are among the parent or grandparent animals
New Zealand
Must be microchipped, muzzled in public, and cannot be publicly advertised for sale
The Netherlands
On June 9, 2008 Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality Gerda Verburg announced the ban on Pitbulls will be canceled before the end of the year. The reason for this was that there was no reduction of biting incidents with dogs since Pit Bulls were banned. The ban was installed in 1993 after three biting incidents where three children were killed. New rules will no longer select on breed or Molosserlooks but require a behavior test for any large dog that shows signs of aggression [17]
Most of the Country
Pitbulls are banned and all other breeds must be muzzled and leashed in public and the owners must pay an annual fee for any injuries caused by these dogs.[citation needed]
All Country
Pitbulls and other breeds such as Rottweilers must be muzzled and leashed in public and the owners must pay an annual fee for any injuries caused by these dogs.[citation needed]

United States
Livingston County, Michigan
May 20, 2008
All "bully breeds" (American Staffordshire Terriers, Bull Terriers, Pit Bulls, and American Bull Dogs)
Delta, Utah[18]
Independence, Missouri
Overland Park, Kansas
Springville, Utah[19]
Miami-Dade County, Florida[20]
Section 5 Code 17: "It is illegal in Miami-Dade County to own any dog which substantially conforms to a Pit Bull breed dog, unless it was specially registered with Miami-Dade County prior to 1989. Acquisition or keeping of a Pit Bull dog: $500.00 fine and County Court action to force the removal of the animal from Miami-Dade County."
Council Bluffs, Iowa[21]
Royal City, Washington[22]
January 12, 2007
Denver, Colorado[23]
9 May 2005
First banned in 1980s, but later revoked
Prince George's County, Maryland[24]
Springfield, Missouri[25]
April 13, 2006
June 21, 2005
Shelbyville, Tennessee[27]
November 18, 2006
Aurora, Colorado[28]
September 27, 2005
Youngstown, Ohio[29]
January 10, 1999
due to the illegal dog fighting
Richland, Washington[22]
December 21, 2006
Tupelo, Mississippi[30]
September 28, 2006
Parker, Colorado[31]
January 17, 2006
Chicago, Illinois[32]
November 17, 2005
Enumclaw, Washington
Garfield Heights, Ohio
October 24, 2007
60 days in jail and or $1,000 fine if owner does not comply with city law.
Sparta, Tennessee
Melvindale, Michigan[33]
April 4, 1990
$100.00 fine or 30 days in jail.

Legal issues in the United States
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) published a study concerning deaths from canine attacks in 2000. [34] According to the study, between 1979 and 1998, one-third of all fatal dog attacks were caused by Pit Bull type dogs. The highest number of attacks (118) were by Pit Bull type dogs, the next highest being Rottweilers at 67.
A followup to the study published in 2000 by Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association suggested that "generic non–breed-specific, dangerous dog laws can be enacted that place primary responsibility for a dog’s behavior on the owner, regardless of the dog’s breed. In particular, targeting chronically irresponsible dog owners may be effective."[35]


Locking jaws
According to Dr. I. Brisbin, a senior researcher with the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of South Carolina, Pit Bulls do not have a "locking jaw" mechanism: [36]

The few studies which have been conducted of the structure of the skulls, mandibles and teeth of Pit Bulls show that, in proportion to their size, their jaw structure and thus its inferred functional morphology, is no different from that of any breed of dog.
There is absolutely no evidence for the existence of any kind of 'locking mechanism' unique to the structure of the jaw and/or teeth of the American Pit Bull Terrier.

A variant of the "locking jaw" story is told by Tom Skeldon, Lucas County (Ohio), dog warden, who said that an impounded Pit Bull that had been used in fighting started "going wild," biting at the walls of the kennel.[38] He shot the dog with a tranquilizer, and then left it for five minutes to let it pass out. When he came back the dog had indeed passed out, but not before it had leaped up and clamped its jaws on a cable used to open the door of the kennel. "Everything else was relaxed, the dog was out cold, but its jaws wouldn't let go of that cable, and he was hanging in midair," said Skeldon. "Not even a jaguar will do that."
However, an incident reported by the Associated Press suggests that other breeds may also fail to relax their jaws when they become unconscious. An Albuquerque police officer was attacked, in October 2005, by a Belgian Malinois, a dog used for herding and police work, with no significant commonality with "Pit Bulls." The dog bit the officer on the arm. When the officer couldn't shake free, she shot the dog, killing it. Still, other officers had to come to her aid, and pry the dead dog's jaws off the officer's arm.

Inability to feel pain
Another common misconception is that Pit Bulls don't feel pain. Pit Bulls have the same nervous system as any other breed, and they can and do feel pain. Historically, breeders propagated dogs who would tolerate or ignore discomfort and pain allowing them to finish required tasks. This trait is known as “gameness” which is defined as “The desire to continue on and/or complete a task despite pain and discomfort.” Therefore care must be taken to avoid serious injuries, since Pit Bulls, like some herding dogs, will continue to perform tasks despite injuries as severe as broken legs.

Pepper spray or other pain when attacking
Another urban myth surrounding this breed states that Pit Bulls are the only type of dog that are not affected by capsaicin-based dog-repellent sprays. In fact, many other dog breeds also display this resistance to pepper spray when they are attacking. Documented cases include Bull Mastiffs, Rottweilers and many German Shepherds (including Police K-9s).[39] In the words of two police officers, it is "not unusual for pepper spray not to work on dogs" [40] and "just as OC spray doesn't work on all humans, it won't work on all canines." [41]
It is also untrue that the Pit Bull is the only dog that will keep attacking after being sub-lethally shot. Rottweilers, Mastiffs and German Shepherds have all exhibited this capacity. [42][43]

Insurance problems
Many homeowner's insurance companies in the United States are reluctant to insure owners of dogs that are considered to be a dangerous breed. Allstate (depending on the state) may not insure homes with Pit Bulls or even Boxers, Akitas, Chow Chows, Dobermans, Rottweilers, or wolf hybrids. [44] The Automobile Club of Southern California will refuse to provide homeowner's insurance if a dog living in the home "looks like a Pit Bull". [45] The CDC estimates that 4.7 million people were bitten by dogs in 1994. By analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP), the CDC determined that 368,245 persons were treated in U.S. hospitals for nonfatal dog bites in 2001, and that approximately 2% of the U.S. population are attacked by dogs per year. These attacks most often occur on the owner's property. [46]
Some insurance companies have taken a compromise position, and will only insure Pit Bull owners if their dogs have achieved a Canine Good Citizen award. [47]

Breed specific legislation (BSL)
In response to a number of well-publicized incidents involving dogs that resemble Pit Bulls, some jurisdictions began placing restrictions on the ownership of Pit Bulls, such as the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991 in the UK, an example of breed-specific legislation. Many jurisdictions have outlawed the possession of Pit Bulls, either Pit Bull breeds specifically, or in addition to other breeds that are regarded as dangerous. The DEFRA (Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs) office explains why Pit Bulls are prohibited in Great Britain; "The prohibited types were all considered to have been bred specifically to be fighting dogs. Organised dog fighting is illegal in Great Britain. Under the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991 other types of dogs can be added to the prohibited list by Order in Council." [48]

A muzzled Pit Bull.
Pit Bull Terriers are regulated in the United Kingdom under the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991, administered by the government agency DEFRA. It is illegal to own any of these dogs without a specific exemption from a court. Licensing is done by local governments, dogs must be muzzled and kept on a lead in public, they must be registered and insured, and receive microchip implants. In November 2002, The Princess Royal was fined £500 under the provisions of the Act.
The Canadian province of Ontario, on August 29, 2005 enacted a ban on Pit Bulls. It was the first province or state in North America to do so. [49] The breeds listed in the ban [50] can no longer be sold, bred, or imported and all Pit Bull owners must leash and muzzle their Pit Bulls in public. A 60 day grace period has been put in place to allow for owners to have their Pit Bulls spayed or neutered. [51] Also it left a period to allow municipalities to adjust to the new law. Prior to the bill's passage, the Ontario government cited what it deemed the success of a Pit Bull bylaw passed by Winnipeg, Manitoba.[52]

Legal challenges to legislation in the United States
As early as 1921, courts have upheld breed specific ordinances in municipalities as a legitimate exercise of police power.[53] These have not been without their Constitutional challenges. A 1991 Colorado Supreme Court case outlines the basic arguments against Pit Bull specific legislation. It incorporated cases from Arkansas, Ohio, New Mexico, Florida, et al. and several federal district courts, which upheld similar statutes. The case has become federal precedent for what classifies a constitutionally acceptable definition of a "Pit Bull" when the statute cites the United Kennel Club as the standard for defining the characteristics of the breed.[54] The Constitutional issues raised by the case cover the quintessential arguments against Pit Bull targeted legislation.
In Colorado Dog Fanciers, Inc. v. City and County of Denver[55], the Supreme Court of Colorado reviewed en banc claims that the 1989 "Pit Bulls prohibited" city ordinance was unconstitutional. The ordinance made it
unlawful for any person to 'own, possess, keep, exercise control over, maintain, harbor, transport, or sell within the City any Pit Bull.' § 8-55(a). The ordinance permitted an owner of a previously licensed Pit Bull to keep the dog only if the owner (1) annually renewed a 'Pit Bull license' (2) proved that the dog had been spayed or neutered and had been vaccinated against rabies, (3) kept the dog confined or securely leashed and muzzled, and (4) maintained $100,000 in liability insurance. § 8-55(d).
The ordinance defined a Pit Bull as
Any dog that is an American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, or any dog displaying a majority of physical traits of any one or more of the above breeds, or any dog exhibiting those distinguishing characteristics which substantially conform to the standards established by the American Kennel Club or United Kennel Club for any of the above breeds.
The trial court held that the ordinance on its face was unconstitutional as a violation of due process rights because it placed the burden of proof on the dog owner that his animal was not a Pit Bull for purposes of the ordinance. Furthermore, the trial court severed the licensing requirement as lacking a rational basis. It judicially modified the ordinance and ordered a 120 day notice to affected owners to comply with the provisions of the modification. Both parties appealed the decision.
Petitioners opposed to the ordinance made several constitutional challenges:
Owners were not afforded sufficient due process when the animal would be impounded for an alleged violation of the ordinance
Ordinance violated due process rights by creating a legislative presumption of criminal culpability of knowingly and voluntarily possessing a Pit Bull
Ordinance violated due process rights by permitting a finding that an animal fell within the definition of a Pit Bull without expert testimony
Ordinance was vague and overbroad for treating all Pit Bulls and substantially similar breeds as inherently dangerous
Ordinance violated Constitutional guarantees of Equal Protection under the law by targeting Pit Bull owners while omitting owners of other presumably dangerous breeds
The Supreme Court rejected each of these claims. It found that Pit Bull owners as a class were not constitutionally suspect when identified in a statute (as opposed to race, ethnicity, and natural origin). Furthermore, the ownership of an animal was not a fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution, but a liberty interest to be safeguarded. Consequently, the court required only a rational basis test for the constitutionality of the ordinance. It held that state police power held a "significant state interest" in public safety and welfare, and that regulation of dogs was a proper exercise of that power.[56] The court adopted the trial court findings that "Pit Bull attacks, unlike attacks by other dogs, occur more often, are more severe, and are more likely to result in fatalities. The trial court also found that Pit Bulls tend to be stronger than other dogs, often give no warning signals before attacking, and are less willing than other dogs to retreat from an attack, even when they are in considerable pain."[57] However, the court did not cite any scientific sources for this legal conclusion.
The Supreme Court did affirm the lower court's ruling that the burden should fall to the state in proving whether an owner's dog was a "Pit Bull" for purposes of the ordinance. Given the case's federal citations for due process claims, this is particularly significant to those statutes of other states which place the burden on the owner in contrast to the Colorado ruling. Pit Bull owners facing prosecution who hold the burden of proof for their dog could challenge the statute on due process grounds under the reasoning in Colorado Dog Fanciers.
The Colorado case did not address expert findings that specific breeds should not be banned from municipalities. Other jurisdictions have deferred the weighing of scientific evidence to the legislature, but do not accept expert testimony to the contrary if the legislature has a "rational basis for public health and safety."[58]
Subsequent to this ruling, a 2004 law passed by the Colorado General Assembly now prohibits breed specific laws. The city of Denver challenged the law on the basis of home rule wherein the city's charter could supersede state law if the issue was to be considered as "local" as opposed to that of a mixed concern, or statewide concern. The district court (not the Colorado Supreme Court) said that there was no new evidence to change its ruling on the Dog Fancier's Case and that it was a local issue. The court refused to allow evidence in which was given to the Colorado Legislature when they passed HB 04-1279 previously. Therefore, the Denver ordinance was reinstated. Over 260 "Pit Bull type" dogs have been seized from their homes and euthanised since this date, resulting in national protest by dog owners and animal rights lobbying groups. [59] Since 1989, Denver authorities have confiscated and destroyed over 1100 Pit Bulls from city residents who have violated the ordinance. Dog owners continue to bring Pit Bulls into the city.
No such ban on other dogs deemed dangerous has been enacted, and the number of Pit Bull related bites has changed little since the city reinstated the ban.[60]
`````Ohio became the first state jurisdiction to find its breed specific legislation unconstitutional on due process grounds. In Toledo v. Tellings (March 3, 2006), a 2-1 decision, the Ohio Sixth District Court of Appeals struck down breed specific legislation that restricted Pit Bull ownership in Toledo, Ohio. The law had relied on a state definition of a vicious dog as one that has bitten or killed a human, has killed another dog, or "belongs to a breed that is commonly known as a Pit Bull dog." The court held that the legislation was void for violation of a Pit Bull owner's right to due process, because the owner could not appeal a designation of his pet as a vicious dog. For the majority, Judge William Skow wrote: [61] "Since we conclude that there is no evidence that Pit Bulls are inherently dangerous or vicious, then the city ordinance limitation on ownership is also arbitrary, unreasonable, and discriminatory." The court found no rational basis for the law. The case went before the Ohio Supreme Court and a final determination was made that overruled the 6th District Appellate decision. Mr. Tellings has appealed the case to the SCOTUS (Dec, 2007) and is awaiting a decision on hearing. [62]
The State of Virginia now has Anti-BSL laws prohibiting cities and counties from banning a dog of certain breed or cross breed.
The State of Florida, Statute 767.14 [63] forbids local governments in Florida from enacting breed specific laws unless the law was in place before October 1, 1990. Several communities, including Miami-Dade County, Florida had such laws in place before the law took effect and Pit Bull ownership is banned there.````````````
However, in Vanater v. Village of S. Point, the Ohio federal district court held that the village criminal ordinance prohibiting the owning or harboring of pit bull terriers within the village limits was not overbroad and was rationally related to the village's duty to protect the safety of its citizens. Also, the court determined the village showed that pit bull terriers are uniquely dangerous & therefore, are proper subjects of the village's police power for the protection of the public's health & welfare. Pit Bulls also possess the quality of gameness, which is not a totally clear concept, but which can be described as the propensity to catch and maul an attacked victim unrelentingly until death occurs, or as the continuing tenacity and tendency to attack repeatedly for the purpose of killing. It is clear that the unquantifiable, unpredictable aggressiveness and gameness of Pit Bulls make them uniquely dangerous. Pit Bulls have the following distinctive behavioral characteristics: a) grasping strength, b) climbing and hanging ability, c) weight pulling ability, d) a history of frenzy, which is the trait of unusual relentless ferocity or the extreme concentration on fighting and attacking, e) a history of catching, fighting, and killing instinct, f) the ability to be extremely destructive and aggressive, g) highly tolerant of pain, h) great biting strength, i) undying tenacity and courage and they are highly unpredictable. While these traits, tendencies or abilities are not unique to Pit Bulls exclusively, Pit Bulls will have these instincts and phenotypical characteristics; most significantly, such characteristics can be latent and may appear without warning or provocation. The breeding history of Pit Bulls makes it impossible to rule out a violent propensity for any one dog as gameness and aggressiveness can be hidden for years. Given the Pit Bull's genetical physical strengths and abilities, a Pit Bull always poses the possibility of danger; given the Pit Bull's breeding history as a fighting dog and the latency of its aggressiveness and gameness, the Pit Bull poses a danger distinct from other breeds of dogs which do not so uniformly share those traits. While Pit Bulls are not the only breed of dog which can be dangerous or vicious, it is reasonable to single out the breed to anticipate and avoid the dangerous aggressiveness which may be undetectable in a Pit Bull. Vanater v. Village of South Point, Ohio, 717 F. Supp. 1236 (D. Ohio 1989) http://www.animallaw.info/cases/caus717fsupp1236.htm

The extent to which banning a particular breed is effective in reducing dog bite fatalities is contested. Some people maintain that Pit Bull attacks are directly attributable to irresponsible owners, rather than to any inherent defect in the breed itself. Other people believe that the Pit Bull Terrier is a breed that, although not inherently dangerous, needs a particularly knowledgeable and committed handler and should not be freely available to novice owners.
Pit Bulls are said to be popular with irresponsible owners, who see these dogs as a symbol of status or machismo.[64] This type of owner may be less likely to socialize, train, or desex their pet. It is known that unneutered male dogs account for a disproportionate amount of all fatal dog attacks. Some say that many of those who do not believe in altering male dogs also believe that having and training an aggressive dog "goes with the territory," so to speak. Irresponsible ownership can have a great impact on how a breed is represented in attack statistics.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which maintains the United States' database on fatal wounds inflicted by dog bites, does not advocate breed-specific legislation, instead encouraging "Dangerous Dog" laws that focus on individual dogs of any breed that have exhibited aggressive behavior.[65] The CDC study is also admittedly flawed due to a large number of dog breeds being unknown when the study was compiled. It bears mentioning that using newspaper reports as evidence is hardly the most valid data available.
Huntsville, Alabama police raided a dog-fighting arena on 28 February 2002 and seized 10 Pit Bulls. The city's attempt to legally euthanize four Pit Bull puppies, never trained to fight, was stopped by Madison County Circuit Court Judge Joe Battle, who ruled that the Pit Bull puppies were not dangerous by virtue of their genetics alone (AP Wire; 6 April 2002).
Huntsville appealed to the Alabama Supreme Court, which affirmed (City of Huntsville v. Sheila Tack et al., 1010459, S.C. Alabama; 30 August 2002) the Circuit Court opinion by a 6-2 vote; the written dissent addressed procedural matters of legal status of the parties, not the nature of the dogs. The puppies were adopted. Animal Rights group PETA sent the Judge a letter calling for the execution of all the pups. Ingrid Newkirk, president of PETA, officially advocates the euthanasia of pitbull dogs brought in to animal shelters, as well as a ban on their breeding.[66] PETA's position on dog breeding in general is that it is an unnecessary practice, and is not limited to pitbulls.[67]
American Airlines banned "Rottweilers, Doberman Pinschers, American Staffordshire Terriers, Bull Terriers, American Pit Bull Terriers, and any mixed breeds containing one or more of those breeds" in August of 2002 following an incident involving an American Pit Bull Terrier puppy that escaped from luggage into the cargo hold of an airliner, causing damage to the cargo hold. The American Kennel Club lobbied the airline to lift the restriction, arguing that the incident was merely one of improper restraint, and could have involved any dog breed.
The restriction was lifted in May of 2003 after a compromise was reached that requires portable dog carriers in the cargo hold to employ releasable cable ties on four corners of the door of the carrier.

Dog fights
Pit Bulls are often used for dog fights, due to their strength, courage and widespread availability. Fight training often means using other dogs of the same sex, as most dogs will not show aggression towards the opposite sex. The true "pit dogs" have excellent attitudes towards humans and show aggression to other animals and other dogs. Although dog fighting is illegal in the United States, it is still practiced, and is sometimes accompanied by gambling. In the United States Commonwealth of Virginia, for example, it is a felony to organize, promote, be employed by, or wager on a dogfight, whether one is physically present at the fight or not. Laws vary in other states, but most states have some laws to address dogfighting.
Most people who own these breeds direct their dogs' plentiful energy toward nonviolent athletic tasks. Some people train their Pit Bulls for dog agility. Others involve their Pit Bulls in weight pulling competitions, obedience competitions or Schutzhund. The Pit Bull often excels at these sports.

Media coverage
Positive press
Some work in hospitals and care facilities as certified therapy dogs, many are well-loved family pets, and some have even saved people's lives. There are many instances of Pit Bulls being productively employed by U.S. Customs [68], as police K9s.[69]
Often, Pit Bulls have been reported to "adopt" other species of animals (such as kittens or squirrels). This is one possible origin of the breed nickname "nanny dog".[70] However, it is more widely accepted that the "nanny dog" nickname comes from Pit Bull-type dogs' innate love and tolerance of children.
A rescued Pit Bull called Popsicle is a United States Customs dog, and is famous for sniffing out one of the biggest cocaine busts in history. [71]
In February, 2006, New Yorker magazine writer Malcolm Gladwell published an article surveying the research on Pit Bulls which concluded that legal attempts to ban the breed were both crude and unnecessary. [72]
In February 2007 a Pit Bull named "Chief" rescued his family of humans from a spitting cobra by dashing in front of the attacking snake and taking the deadly bite himself. Chief subdued the snake but died of the venom 30 minutes later. [73]
In April 2007, columnist John Canzano of The Oregonian newspaper wrote a favorable piece on Hollywood, the Pit Bull that formerly belonged to NBA player Qyntel Woods. [74] Hollywood, renamed Stella, was adopted by a loving owner and reformed from a fighting dog to a lap dog.
Nearly fifty Pit Bulls were seized from Michael Vick's dogfighting operation in 2007. Of those dogs, one was euthanized because of aggression issues. About half were sent to Best Friends Animal Society, a Utah animal sanctuary, where they are receiving care and behavioral training. The others, which were behaviorally evaluated as being suitable candidates for adoption, went to various other groups. Bay Area Doglovers Responsible About Pit Bulls (BAD RAP), transported thirteen of these dogs in an RV across the United States to Oakland, California, where they were placed in adoptive and foster homes. [75]. BAD RAP detailed the timeline of the dogs progress, from initial evaluations to fostering and adoption, on its website. [76]
News reports of injuries and fatal attacks
News media stories of Pit Bull attacks involving disfiguring injury to humans and other animals, the latter very often also fatally, ranging in size from attacks on smaller nonpitbull dogs[77] [78] to horses[79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] can be found globally.[85][86] The Pit Bulls involved were not always loose and off the owner's property, but sometimes were inside the home of the owner, who, or a family member or visitor, was the victim of the aggression. Fatal Pit Bull attacks to children and adults have been reported by the English-language news media in the United States and United Kingdom. [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98]
American actor Peter Strauss was attacked and bitten on his calf by a neighbor's pit bull mix as he worked in his orchard on his farm in Ojai, California on Sunday, March 23, 2008. The injury required multiple stitches. The dog was later euthanized by authorities with the owner's consent.[99]
It is very common for dog attacks involving other breeds to be mistakenly labeled as 'Pit Bull attacks'. Often, the attacking dog is not a Pit Bull, but is mistakenly reported as such.[citation needed]
Negative perceptions about Pit Bulls are prevalent enough to be spoofed, as in The Onion's mock caption "Heroic Pit Bull Journeys 2,000 Miles to Attack Owner" (17 April 2002) [100] and "Department Of Homeland Security Deputizes Real Mean Dog", a Rottweiler-Pit Bull-Doberman mix introduced to the press corps approvingly by Tom Ridge (May 21, 2003).[101]

Famous owners
Monica has a pitbull that has made many public appearances with her, including in the video for Everytime tha Beat Drop.
Jessica Alba.[102]
Michael J. Fox.[103]
Alicia Silverstone.[104]
Jessica Biel owns three Pit Bulls.[105][106]
Adam Brody and Rachel Bilson have a Pit Bull named Penny Lane.[107]
Cesar Millan, otherwise known as The Dog Whisperer owns several Pit Bulls and uses them as model dogs with which to aid in rehabilitating misbehaved dogs in some circumstances.
Big Boi from hip-hop duo Outkast is a registered Pit Bull breeder.[108]
Radio host Ira Glass has a Pit Bull.[109]
West Coast Choppers owner Jesse G. James owns three Pit Bulls.[110]
TV cook Rachael Ray has one Pit Bull. Her Pit Bull's name is Isaboo and has appeared in cooking episodes and on her talk show. Rachel had another Pit Bull named Boo before she became famous.[111]
Comedian Jon Stewart has two Pit Bulls, named Monkey and Shamsky.[112][113]
Author Andrew Vachss, a vocal opponent of Pit Bull fighting[114] and breed-specific bans, has a Pit Bull named Honey.[115]
In the news
Dakota is a Pit Bull who, during her career, was one of the most active search and rescue dogs in the country and was called to work some very high profile search efforts such as the search for Laci Peterson and the search effort to find the remains of the astronauts who lost their lives in explosion of the Space Shuttle Columbia.
Neville is a Pit Bull originally from Ontario. When the provincial pit bull ban went into effect he was rescued to Washington state, where he is now a police dog.

In the arts

Pete the Pup, aka "Petey," in a scene from The Little Rascals 1931 comedy short Fly My Kite.
Jonathan Davis from Korn appears walking a Pit Bull in the videoclip "Got the Life".
Daddy is a "pack member" of Cesar Millan's Dog Psychology Center. Hip hop artist Redman, Daddy’s original owner, gave the four-month-old puppy to Cesar. [116]
Pete the Pup ("Petey") from The Little Rascals series of films
The grindcore band Caninus features pit bulls as "vocalists"
Jennifer Lopez has a pit bull in her "I'm Glad" Video
Veronica Mars, the title character in the CW television show, has a pit bull named Backup.
On the cover of Weird Al Yankovic's "Straight Out of Lynwood" is a pit bull which he borrowed from a nearby couple.
Rapper Snoop Dogg featured a pit bull puppy in the music video for his single "Drop It Like It's Hot."
Rapper Armando Christian Perez is known by his stage name "pitbull".
Boys Like Girls have a three-legged pit bull in their "Great Escape" video.

See also
Capp, Dawn (October 2004). American Pit Bull Terriers, Fact or Fiction. Doral Publishing, Inc.. ISBN 0-9745407-1-4.
Dangerous Dogs Act 1991
List of dog fighting breeds

^ Ohio's legal definition of "Pit Bull"
^ http://www.heraldsquarehotel.com/dog_cvrs.htm
^ Dog genes tell surprising tales
^ Scared of Pit Bulls? You’d Better Be!
^ www.bestfriends.org
^ Overpopulation. Pit Bull Rescue San Diego. Retrieved on 22 August 2007].
^ Pit Bulls Continue to Capture Hearts. Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved on 22 August 2007.
^ Hardworking Pit Bulls Buck Bad Rap. Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved on 22 August 2007.
^ "Ontario moves to ban Pit Bulls", CBC News, October 15, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
^ CBC Marketplace: Dangerous Dogs
^ [1]
^ City of Melbourne - Pets and animal management - Restricted-breed dogs
^ City of Mandurah - Restricted Dog Breeds
^ Restricted Breeds
^ Rural code, articles L211-11 to L211-28 and ministerial decision from April 30, 1999
^ UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs - Dangerous Dogs Act, 1991 and Amendment, 1997
^ Dutch newssite mentioning the end of the Pit Bull ban on june 9, 2008
^ Welcome to Delta City, Utah's Official Web Site!
^ Microsoft Word - Title 3.doc
^ Miami-Dade County - Animal Services
^ Chapter 4.20 ANIMAL CONTROL
^ a b http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/6420AP_WA_Dog_Ban.html
^ Pit Bulls Banned Again In Denver - Denver News Story - KMGH Denver
^ wjz.com - Prince George's County Pit Bull Ban Upheld
^ City of Springfield, MO - Bills & Ordinances
^ State Lawmaker Proposes Ban of Pit Bull Dogs
^ Shelbyville Times-Gazette: Story: Proposed Pit Bull ban draws support
^ Aurora's Proposed Pit Bull Ban Loses Some Of Its Bark - Denver News Story - KMGH Denver
^ Owners fight proposed Pit Bull ban - and win
^ http://network.bestfriends.org/mississippi/news/8009.html
^ Parker May Scrap Pit Bull Ban, Beef Up Dangerous Dog Law - Health News Story - KMGH Denver
^ abc7chicago.com: Chicago considers banning Pit Bulls 11/17/05
^ http://library2.municode.com/mcc/link.htm?view=jumpview&s_context=foliolink&s_action=newSearch&s_filter=simple1trueinfobase14351phrasetrue&s_filter=simple2truefoliodestinationch004.x1-4-139phrasetrue&link_type=jump&s_addFilter=1&s_addFilter=2&hash=0-0-0-729
^ http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/duip/dogbreeds.pdf
^ "Dog-Bite-Related Fatalities -United States, 1995-1996" (HTML) (1997-05-30). Center for Disease Control. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
^ Toledo v. Tellings, Slip Copy, 2006 WL 513946
^ Toledo v. Tellings, Slip Copy, Paragraph 25, 2006 WL 513946
^ http://www.all-creatures.org/adow/art-dogsblood.html
^ http://www.policek9.com/html/oc.html
^ http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/0,2106,3535994a11aT,00.html
^ http://www.policemag.com/survivalguide.pdf
^ [2]
^ New Zealand, world, sport, business & entertainment news on Stuff.co.nz
^ Washington Bill Asks Insurers to Consider Dogs' Deeds, not their Breeds
^ Confidential communication from ACSC adjuster in Pasadena, CA office.
^ http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5226a1.htm
^ http://www.akc.org/news/index.cfm?article_id=2408
^ http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/welfare/domestic/ddogsleaflet.pdf
^ http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/03/02/pit-bull-050302.html
^ http://www.ontla.on.ca/documents/Bills/38_Parliament/Session1/b132_e.htm
^ http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1125278311720_42?s_name=&no_ads=
^ http://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/news/2004/20041015-pitbulls-nr.asp
^ See McQueen v. Kittitas County, 115 Wash. 672 (1921)
^ See the 2007 federal court decision in Coalition of Human Advocates for K9's and Owners v. City and County of San Francisco, 2007 WL 641197 (N.D.Cal. 27 February 2007) citing descriptions outlined by the UKC as the standard
^ 820 P.2d 644, Colo., 1991
^ See Colorado Dog Fanciers, Inc. v. City and County of Denver (820 P.2d 644, at 652, Colo.,1991), Justice ERICKSON delivering opinion of the court
^ See Ibid at 652, see also the 2004 federal case Warboys v. Proulx, 303 F.Supp.2d 111 FN13 (D.Conn., 2004), "the Pit Bull poses a danger distinct from other breeds of dogs which do not so uniformly share those traits"
^ See Holt v. City of Maumelle, 817 S.W.2d 208 (Ark.,1991)
^ http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-07-20-denver-pit-bull_x.htm?csp=34
^ Denver Daily News
^ http://www.sconet.state.oh.us/rod/newpdf/6/2006/2006-ohio-975.pdf
^ http://www.toledoblade.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060304/NEWS02/603040406&SearchID=73239126879623
^ [http://flsenate.gov/statutes/index.cfm?mode=View%20Statutes&SubMenu=1&App_mode=Display_Statute&Search_String=767.14&URL=CH0767/Sec14.HTM http://flsenate.gov/statutes/index.cfm?mode=View%20Statutes&SubMenu=1&App_mode=Display_Statute&Search_String=767.14&URL=CH0767/Sec14.HTM
^ BBC NEWS UK Dog control laws and Pit Bulls
^ Centers for Disease Control. "Breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1998", 2000.
^ Newkirk, Ingrid. "Controlling an animal as deadly as a weapon", San Francisco Chronicle, June 8, 2005.
^ PETA. [3], Retrieved September 15, 2007.
^ http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/Terrorism/story?id=1200304&page=2
^ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2001/07/30/MN166935.DTL
^ http://dogsinthenews.com/stories/060929a.php
^ http://www.cbp.gov/xp/CustomsToday/2002/October/k9.xml
^ http://malcolmgladwell.com/2006/2006_02_06_a_pitbull.html
^ http://dogsinthenews.com/stories/070301a.php
^ What happened to Qyntel's Pit Bull?
^ From fighters to friends, Vick's Pit Bulls learn new life. CNN. Retrieved on 2008-01-27.
^ A Second Chance for the Vick-tims. BAD RAP. Retrieved on 2008-01-27.
^ Pit Bulls Kill Small Dog Chained In Family's Yard. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.WJZ-TV (CBS), April 25, 2007; Woodland, Maryland USA.
^ Pit Bulls Kill Poodle, Attack Woman Near Middle School. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.KNBC-TV, June 6, 2007; Tustin, California USA.
^ Pit Bull Attacks Iowa Police Horse. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.Waterloo-Cedar Falls Courier, June 1, 2007; Waterloo, Iowa USA.
^ Pit Bull Attacks, Kills Show Horse. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.KMBC-TV, March 5, 2007; Leavenworth County, Kansas USA.
^ Pit Bulls Kill Race Horse. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.AOL Sports, March 1, 2007; Spokane Valley, Washington USA.
^ Joey Porter's dogs get loose, kill miniature horse. Retrieved on August 13, 2007.Pittsburgh Post-Gazette newspaper, September 21, 2006; Pine, Pennsylvania USA. "Charges could be filed by the end of the week over an incident Tuesday in which two dogs belonging to Steelers linebacker Joey Porter -- a Pit Bull and a mastiff -- got loose from Mr. Porter's Pine home and killed a miniature horse at a nearby farm.."
^ Dogs Shot, Killed After They Attack Goat, Horse. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.KMGN-TV, September 13, 2005; Denver, Colorado USA.
^ Pit Bull attacks police horse in Golden Gate Park. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.San Francisco Chronicle newspaper, November 23, 2003
^ George the Jack Russell dies saving kids. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.The Sydney Morning Herald Australian newspaper, May 2, 2007; location: Manaia, New Zealand,
^ Girl, 5, stood no chance against Pit Bull. Retrieved on September 8, 2007.The Times, UK newspaper September 3, 2007. Location: United Kingdom.
^ Pit Bulls euthanized after mauling 90-year-old who died. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.Contra Costa Times/Associated Press, May 27, 2007; San Antonio, Texas USA.
^ Pit Bull kills child and injures grandmother. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.The Independent newspaper, January 2, 2007; London, England UK.
^ Pit Bull owner sentenced to 3 years in fatal mauling. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.The Washington Times, March 30, 2006; Spotsylvania, Virginia USA
^ Girl killed by Pit Bull terrier. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.BBC, January 1, 2007; London, England UK
^ Pit Bull jumps fence and kills gardener, 71. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.Associated Press, July 28, 2006; Kansas City, Kansas USA.
^ Pit Bull kills 91-year-old Detroit woman. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.The Detroit News, December 6, 2005; Detroit, Michigan USA.
^ S.F. boy, 12, killed by his family's Pit Bulls. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.San Francisco Chronicle newspaper, June 4, 2005; San Francisco, California USA.
^ Pit Bull Kills Child in Huntington. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.WBOY-TV (NBC TV), May 18, 2005; Huntington, West Virginia USA.
^ Pit Bulls Kill Owner In Home. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.CBS News, May 12, 2005; St. Louis, Missouri USA.
^ Dog Kills Month-old Infant Sleeping with Mom. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.Sunherald.com, December 14, 2004; Shoreline Park, Mississippi USA.
^ Pit Bull Kills Big Isle tot, mauls mom. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.Honolulu Star-Bulletin newspaper, June 10, 2001; Honolulu, Hawaii USA.
^ Pit Bull Kills California Boy. Retrieved on June 15, 2007.The New York Times newspaper, June 15, 1987; New York, NY USA.
^ Peter Strauss Injured In Pit Bull Attack. Retrieved on May 5, 2008.
^ http://www.theonion.com/content/node/34454
^ http://www.theonion.com/content/node/28474
^ http://popsugar.com/213575
^ Michael J. Fox owns a Pit Bull named Burnaby
^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4155/is_20061001/ai_n16761085
^ (June 18, 2007) Jessica Biel Adopts—Again. U.S. magazine: Star. Page 27: "The 25-year-old brunette cutie just adopted her third Pit Bull."
^ The Puparazzi
^ http://www.people.com/people/rachel_bilson/biography
^ http://www.ireland.com/theticket/articles/2007/0413/1176157030420.html
^ http://www.advocate.com/print_article_ektid44218.asp
^ http://tv.yahoo.com/jesse-james/contributor/1253333
^ http://www.rachaelraymag.com/content/18770/
^ http://sss.jonstewart.net/three/ambles/amble6.html
^ http://www.jonstewart.net/bio/index.html
^ Dead Game, from Born Bad, (collection of shorter works) by Andrew Vachss. Vintage, 1994.
^ Dogs of The Zero - Honey & Pokey : The Zero 5.0laf - The Official Website of Andrew Vachss
^ http://www.cesarmillaninc.com/packprofiles/dpc_daddy.php
Further reading
Karen, Delise (2002). Fatal Dog Attacks: The Stories Behind the Statistics. Anubis Pub. ISBN 0-9721914-0-2.
Dawn, Capp (2004). Underdogs: dogs under fire: The Truth About Pit Bulls. Doral Publishing. ISBN 0-9745407-1-4.

External links

Government sites
Nonfatal Dog Bite Related Injuries - U.S. Government

A Little Vicious - Immy Humes's American tragicomedy about a pitbull on death row